Following the crisis, the government commissioned two investigations, the Laidlaw Inquiry to investigate the cause of the West Coast failure, and Brown magazine to study the broader franchise system. The Laidlaw report was published in December 2012 and found that DfT was the first to be responsible for the failure of the West Coast after making several errors in its financial modeling.  The three major franchise competitions – Great Western, Essex Thameside and Thameslink – were suspended until the Brown exam results.  It was published in January 2013 and concluded that there were no fundamental gaps in the system, but it made 11 recommendations on how to improve it. One of the recommendations was to disseminate the re-franchise schedule in order to avoid a pooling that has made it a question for the government not to hold more than four competitions per year and to clean up the rewards on the east and west coasts.  Another Brown recommendation was to break the standard deductible period into two periods: an initial duration of 7 to 10 years, followed by an automatic extension of 3 to 5 years if the performance criteria were met (but may also be granted if they were not to deter abuse by underperforming OCD).